The Germans had realised that their only remaining chance of victory was to defeat the Allies before the United States could fully deploy its resources. De fait, ils n'y arriveront pas. Yet again, losses were much the same on each side: 137,000 Allied and 130,000 German casualties up to 6 June. Ludendorff now postponed Hagen and launched the German Seventh, First and Third Armies in the Friedensturm (Peace Offensive) of 15 July, a renewed attempt to draw Allied reserves south from Flanders and to expand the salient created by Blücher–Yorck eastwards. Le 11, à partir de Méry, le général Mangin organise une contre-attaque de trois divisions françaises et deux divisions américaines. Operation Mars was immediately cancelled.[20]. Au nord d'Ypres, les Belges tiennent leur front sans désemparer malgré plusieurs assauts allemands. German troops, led by elite Stormtroopers, advanced behind a creeping barrage. By the end of the day, the few British divisions in reserve were hard-pressed to hold a line along the River Lys. By the end of the first day, the British had lost 7,512 dead and 10,000 wounded and the Germans had broken through at several points on the front of the British Fifth Army. Malgré les appels désespérés du général Haig, Foch refusa d'engager ses réserves restreintes. Restait cependant à encaisser les dernières attaques allemandes, les plus terribles de la guerre. [17] There were three phases: first, a brief bombardment on the enemy's command and communications (headquarters, telephone exchanges, etc. The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht ("Kaiser's Battle"), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918.The Germans had realised that their only remaining chance of victory was to defeat the Allies before the … Avant que les défenseurs britanniques étourdis ne puissent réagir, des équipes spéciales de troupes d'assaut allemandes sortirent du brouillard et de la fumée pour attaquer ou contourner les points stratégiques des lignes. Ludendorff prévoit de réunir les deux saillants pris lors des précédentes attaques dans le secteur d'Amiens, de l'Aisne et de la Marne. The German Army had gained a temporary advantage in numbers as nearly 50 divisions had been freed by the Russian withdrawal from the war with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Nous sommes arrêtés longtemps devant les gares de Belfort et de Nancy, … Bien que l'offensive ait un objectif limité, ses premiers succès persuadent le haut commandement allemand de poursuivre vers Paris, qui n'est qu'à 130 km. Le 9 avril, l'offensive Michael fut arrêtée dans la région de Montdidier. zone intérieure (Allemagne) : 3 divisions. One army would advance to threaten Paris and force the exhausted French to sign an armistice. John Terraine | Published in History Today Volume 18 Issue 3 March 1968. The German objective was the penetration of the Western Frontat two of its weaker points. [22] German supply difficulties were made worse by the direction of advance, which crossed the wasteland created during the Battle of the Somme in 1916 and by Operation Alberich, the German retirement to the Hindenburg Line from February to March 1917.[23]. [21] The Allies reacted by appointing the French General Ferdinand Foch to coordinate all Allied activity in France, and subsequently as commander-in-chief of all Allied forces everywhere. Ludendorff's dilemma was that the most important parts of the Allied line were also the most strongly held. Signature du traité de paix entre les puissances centrales et la Russie à Brest-Litovsk. Items in Stacks; English: Media relating to the German Spring Offensive of 1918 on the Western Front in Europe, collectively known in German as the Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle). ", Kaulisch, Baldur. The bombardment [hit] targets over an area of 150 square miles, the biggest barrage of the entire war. As with Michael, losses were roughly equal, approximately 110,000 men wounded or killed, each. German troops, led by elite Stormtroopers, advanced behind a creeping barrage. The German offensive of March 1918 and the battles of retirement from late August to October 1918 again led to heavy losses. The strategic objective remained to split the British and the French and gain victory before American forces could make their presence felt on the battlefield. The right wing of Third Army became separated from the retreating Fifth Army, and also retreated to avoid being outflanked. Plus au sud, le général Foch, commandant en chef des armées alliées, qui prépare ce qu'il veut être l'offensive décisive sur la Somme, n'a pas voulu distraire de troupes pour aider les Anglo-franco-belges à Ypres. To enable the initial breakthrough, Lieutenant Colonel Georg Bruchmüller,[15] a German artillery officer, developed the Feuerwalze [de], (literally: rolling fire, rolling barrage)[16] an effective and economical creeping barrage scheme. 160 pp, Charles-Lavauzelle, 1938. Cela va au-devant d… The rear zone existed as outline markings only, and the battle zone consisted of battalion "redoubts" which were not mutually supporting (allowing stormtroopers to penetrate between them). The next day, the Germans widened their attack to the north, forcing the defenders of Armentières to withdraw before they were surrounded, and capturing most of the Messines Ridge. L'objectif de leur offensive, du nom de code Blücher-Yorck, est de frapper la 6e armée française du général Duchêne qui regroupe douze divisions dont trois britanniques. Ils promirent que, dès leur accession au pouvoir, ils y mettraient fin. Le 24 Mars le cours est brusquement interrompu. In theory, a British infantry division (with nine infantry battalions) deployed three battalions in the outpost zone, four battalions in the battle zone and two battalions in the rear zone.[18]. Améliorez sa vérifiabilité en les associant par des références à l'aide d'appels de notes. "The March Offensive, 1918. Un précieux témoignage qui nous raconte la vie quotidienne des poilus. Even so, about a million German soldiers remained tied up in the east until the end of the war. They also lost 1,300 artillery pieces and 200 tanks. Comment la reprise de la guerre de mouvement mène-t-elle à la fin du conflit ? [12] Each major formation "creamed off" its best and fittest soldiers into storm units; several complete divisions were formed from these elite units. Je suis rappelé au 132 qui cantonne aux environs et nous embarquons d’urgence à Montreux-Vieux. Access. Le moral du soldat de 1918 n'a plus rien à voir avec celui des mutineries de 1917. Cinquante divisions allemandes avaient pu être redéployées sur le front occidental après la signature du traité de Brest-Litovsk avec la jeune Russie soviétique. 22 manuels numériques max avec tous les contenus des manuels Belin Éducation nouveaux programmes de lycée, organisés en base de données, et des milliers de ressources. [13] Notwithstanding the effectiveness of the stormtroopers, the following German infantry often made attacks in large traditional waves and suffered heavy casualties.[14]. Les Allemands ont également été incapables de s'approvisionner en fournitures et matériel assez rapidement. C'est qu'il considère que c'est sur la Somme, où les Américains viennent renforcer les Franco-Anglais, que va se produire, croit-il, l'action décisive qui doit obliger l'état-major allemand à renoncer à conquérir le dernier morceau du territoire belge encore inviolé. Depuis la commune d'Hangest-en-Santerre, la 163e division d'infanterie dirigée par le général Debeney défendait Moreuil. No clear objective was established before the start of the offensives and once the operations were underway, the targets of the attacks were constantly changed according to the battlefield (tactical) situation. L'armée allemande avait subi de lourdes pertes et ne disposait plus d'assez de troupes pour poursuivre l'offensive. Within a few weeks, the danger of a German breakthrough had passed, though related fighting continued until July. Elle est très violente et, si l'armée française résiste tant que bien mal, l'armée anglaise recule fortement. Novembre 1914-mars 1918 (R. Porte) ... ♘ L'armée française arrive à maturation matérielle et humaine, tactique et stratégique, en 1918, face à une armée allemande au bord de la rupture. Although the British had learned the approximate time and location of the offensive, the weight of the attack and of the preliminary bombardment was an unpleasant surprise. Eventually it was decided to launch Operation Michael near Saint-Quentin, at the hinge between the French and British armies, and strike north to Arras. Une fois que ceci aurait été réalisé, on espérait que les Français chercheraient des conditions d'armistice. Without French reinforcements, it was feared that the Germans could advance the remaining 15 mi (24 km) to the ports within a week. The newly-won territory was difficult to traverse, as much of it consisted of the shell-torn wilderness left by the 1916 Battle of the Somme, and would later be difficult to defend against Allied counter-attacks. French casualties from "Official Returns to the Chamber, March 29, 1922", Churchill, "The World Crisis, Vol. Plus de 160 000 Britanniques furent mis hors de combat. Aucun objectif clair et simple n'a été établi avant le début de l'offensive et une fois que les opérations étaient en cours, les cibles de ces attaques ont été en constante évolution en fonction de la situation sur le champ de bataille. Once they began advancing, the Germans struggled to maintain the momentum, partly due to logistical issues. However, the German offensive had stalled because of logistical problems and exposed flanks. [34] By July, the German superiority of numbers on the Western Front had sunk to 207 divisions to 203 Allied, a negligible lead which would be reversed as more American troops arrived. A bord d'un corsaire allemand. Despite these apparent successes, they suffered heavy casualties in return for land that was of little strategic value and hard to defend. They had incurre… [27] As a result, the Feuerwalze was very effective and the Allied front, with a few notable exceptions, collapsed. 2", p.963. German troop losses were 239,000 men, many of them specialist shocktroops (Stoßtruppen) who were irreplaceable. From 0440, the fire-waltz pounded 43 miles of British lines – such a vast stretch the Allies were left uncertain where the assault would occur. [8] The German government and Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, nominally the Chief of the General Staff, were not party to the planning process. Although Ludendorff had intended Blücher-Yorck to be a prelude to a decisive offensive (Hagen) to defeat the British forces further north, he made the error of reinforcing merely tactical success by moving reserves from Flanders to the Aisne, whereas Foch and Haig did not overcommit reserves to the Aisne. [26], The German attack took place on 27 May, between Soissons and Reims. En mars 1918, le commandement allemand rapatrie les troupes du front oriental et lance une grande offensive à l’Ouest : c’est le retour de la guerre de mouvement. "The Tragic Pursuit of Total Victory. VI.1 L’Hiver 1917-1918 – L’offensive Allemande 1.11.17-30.4.18: Official History: Anon. In many sectors, the Germans, deprived of any surprise as their fuel-starved air force had lost air superiority to the Allies, advanced no further than the French Forward Zone, and nowhere did they break the French Battle (Second) Zone.[32]. Offensive allemande du printemps 1918 JMO du 132 ème RI – 24 mars 1918. L'apparition de 8 cas de choléra dans le 268 e régiment, partie de la 81e division de réserve du 41 e corps, amène le service médical à déclarer toute l'unité inapte au combat et renvoyer précipitamment les malades … By the standards of the time, there had been a substantial advance. Le pacte d’assistance mutuelle qui nous liait aux Anglais fonctionna parfaitement jusqu’en mars 1918. Certains des soldats inhumés ont été tués en 1914, d'autres au cours de la Bataille de la Somme, cependant, la grande majorité d'entre eux ont été tués au cours de la Bataille du Kaiser, offensive allemande de mars 1918, ou de l'Offensive des Cent-Jours menée par les Alliés à partir du 8 août 1918 [1]. The stormtrooper tactic was to attack and disrupt enemy headquarters, artillery units and supply depots in the rear areas, as well as to occupy territory rapidly. La Deuxième Grande Offensive Allemande Du Printemps, 1918. Voyage interminable. Février 1918 - Mars 1918 - Avril 1918. Alors que le 21 mars 1918, une offensive allemande se déclenche en Picardie, relisons les lettres de combattants parues dans Le Figaro entre 1914 et 1916. After a day, the Germans had achieved only minor gains and had suffered heavy casualties. The British 40th Division, on the northern flank of the Portuguese, also rapidly collapsed before the attack, opening a gap that further facilitated the envelopment of the Portuguese by the Germans. German success here could choke the British into defeat. Un de ses premiers actes de commandement fut d'employer une partie de ses maigres réserves pour boucher la dangereuse brèche sur la Somme. The intention was not to reach the English Channel coast, but to break through the Allied lines and roll up the flank of the British army from the south, pushing it back against the Channel Ports or destroying it if the British chose to stand and fight. [24] All of this could be replaced, either from French and British factories or from American manpower. message de Guillaume II au président Wilson. [24] In terms of morale, the initial German jubilation at the successful opening of the offensive soon turned to disappointment, as it became clear that the attack had not achieved decisive results. Tanks anglais Mark V lors de la prise de Grévilliers le 25 août 1918. The French had been warned of this attack (the Battle of Matz (French: Bataille du Matz)) by information from German prisoners, and their defence in depth reduced the impact of the artillery bombardment on 9 June. Hutier doit attaquer à l'ouest le long de la rivière Matz, un affluent de l'Oise, dans la direction de Noyon et de Montdidier. The lack of a unified high command was partly rectified by the appointment of General Foch to the supreme command, and coordination would improve in later Allied operations. Anzac et Suvla. The commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, issued an "Order of the Day" on 11 April stating, "With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight on to the end.". There was a frenzied atmosphere in Paris, which German long-range guns had been shelling since 21 March, with many citizens fleeing and the government drawing up plans to evacuate to Bordeaux.[28]. Stay informed. Le sac de Montdidier; offensive allemande de mars, 1918. Get the Magazine. ", Phifer, Mike. Malgré la réussite de l'offensive du Boug, le commandement allemand s'inquiète des conditions sanitaires. Observations on the German spring offensive, 1918'], This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 00:28. After a few days, the German advance began to falter, as the infantry became exhausted and it became increasingly difficult to move artillery and supplies forward to support them. [35] Even worse, they lost most of their best-trained men: stormtrooper tactics had them leading the attacks. Imprint Paris, Grou-Radenez, 1922. The main attack was made on the open and flat sector defended by the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps. i LA PREMIÈRE GUERRE MONDIALE EN ALSACE du front. [26] After the British had held off the Michael advance on the Somme, the US 1st Division was moved to reinforce the line in that sector in mid-April and launched their first attack of the war on Cantigny on 28 May 1918. From 0440, the fire-waltz pounded 43 miles of British lines – such a vast stretch the Allies were left uncertain where the assault would occur. [29] German losses were again mainly from the difficult-to-replace assault divisions. The British abandoned the comparatively worthless territory they had captured at vast cost the previous year around Ypres, freeing several divisions to face the German attackers. L'« opération Michael » commença le 21 mars 1918 à 4 h 40 en Picardie, par un bombardement d'artillerie assez court mais extrêmement violent, avec l'aide de 6 200 canons 21 mars 1918 : Offensive allemande à Château-Thierry Le 21 mars 1918… The other offensives were subsidiary to Michael and were designed to divert Allied forces from the main offensive effort on the Somme. Mais les alliés tiennent et, finalement, le 2 mai, la quatrième bataille d'Ypres s'achève sans que l'armée allemande puisse espérer atteindre son objectif. Libérées du front de l’Est par le traité de Brest-Litovsk les divisions d'infanterie allemandes sont amenées rapidement par le chemin de fer sur le front occidental. L'objectif de Ludendorff est d'empêcher les Français d'envoyer des renforts aux Britanniques qui se trouvent dans le nord de la France, où il prévoit une nouvelle attaque. The Germans were also fortunate in that the morning of the attack was foggy, allowing the stormtroopers leading the attack to penetrate deep into the British positions undetected. However, under much less pressure from the Germans and occupying good defensive positions protected by the La Bassée Canal, the British 55th Division on the southern flank of the Portuguese were able to hold much of their position throughout the battle. Ludendorff failed to follow the correct stormtrooper tactics, as described above. Le 11 novembre 1918 à 6 heures du matin, les généraux allemands signent l'Armistice avec les Alliés. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Cependant le commandement de la IIIe armée française, le général Humbert, averti par des déserteurs allemands a organisé sa défense en conséquence. After fruitless attempts to capture Amiens, Ludendorff called off Operation Michael on 5 April. Ludendorff ended Georgette on 29 April. for the failure to formulate sound and clear strategy. L'assaut allemand débute par un tir de barrage de 4 600 pièces d'artillerie, suivi d'une attaque de sept divisions sur un front de 15 km. Once that was achieved, it was hoped that the French would seek armistice terms. Gneisenau was called off the following day.[31]. 18 cm. Essentially an opportunist, Ludendorff envisaged breaking through the … [10][11], The German army had concentrated many of its best troops into stormtrooper units, trained in infiltration tactics to infiltrate and bypass enemy front line units, leaving these strong points to be "mopped-up" by follow-up troops. After two days the Fifth Army was in full retreat. It was launched from the Hindenburg Line, in the vicinity of Saint-Quentin, France. The ground on this sector of the front would dry out much sooner after the winter and spring rains and would therefore be easier to advance across. By mid-April 1918 most of the German divisions on the Eastern Front had been transferred to the … The artillery bombardment began at 4.40am on March 21. However, victory was not achieved and the German armies were severely depleted, exhausted and in exposed positions. Haig dut faire venir d'urgence des renforts du Royaume-Uni et le QG britannique dut retirer des divisions d'autres théâtres d'opérations. Michael was the main attack, which was intended to break through the Allied lines, outflank the British forces (which held the front from the Somme River to the English Channel) and defeat the British Army. By Captain Ferlus. L'offensive est dirigée par la VIIe armée du général général von Böhm-Ermolli et la Ire armée du général Bruno von Mudra, totalisant quarante-quatre divisions. By the end of the first day, the Germans had made significant advances. The ensuing Hundred Days Offensive resulted in the Germans losing all of the ground that they had taken in the Spring Offensive, the collapse of the Hindenburg Line, and the capitulation of Germany that November. Le 21 mars 1918, l'Allemagne se lance dans une offensive majeure afin de forcer les défenses franco-britanniques. De suite après Pâques, l'offensive allemande se déclenche dans le Nord, à la charnière des armées française et anglaise. Août 1918. In particular, in the sector held by the British Fifth Army, which they had recently taken over from French units, the defences were incomplete and there were too few troops to hold the complete position in depth. In this sector, the British defences in depth were complete and fully manned, some of the opening German bombardment hit only empty positions and there was no fog to give cover to the attacking stormtroopers. Second battle of Villers-Bretonneux . The process of relief in place was poorly organized by the British First Army's command, and the Portuguese 1st Division had been withdrawn to the rear on 6 April, leaving the Portuguese 2nd Division to defend the entire sector alone. Hazebrouck remained in Allied hands and the Germans occupied a vulnerable salient under fire from three sides. Over 1,100,000 shells were fired in five hours...[19]. Pris par surprise, débordés et submergés, les défenseurs reculèrent sur tout le front, une large brèche s'ouvrit, permettant aux Allemands d'avancer de plus de 50 km. For other uses, see, Churchill, "The World Crisis, Vol. At Compiègne, a sudden French counter-attack on 11 June, by four divisions and 150 tanks (under General Charles Mangin) with no preliminary bombardment, caught the Germans by surprise and halted their advance. 2", p.963. It was scheduled for March-April 1918 and later dubbed the Spring Offensive. to describe it as a pyrrhic victory. The Americans were originally deployed in the quiet Saint-Mihiel sector in Lorraine where they had their first significant engagement in the defence of Seicheprey on 20 April. Behind, out of range of German field artillery, was the "battle zone" where the offensive was to be firmly resisted, and behind that again, out of range of all but the heaviest German guns, was a "rear zone" where reserves were held ready to counter-attack or seal off penetrations. Elles passeront à l'action le 30 mars, quand les Allemands menaceront la Marne. Vagabonds Of The Sea – The Campaign Of A French Cruiser: Memoirs: Rene Milan: 1919: Download pdf. À 9 h 40, deux cent mille Allemands attaquent les lignes anglaises entre Cambrai et Saint-Quentin. By 1110, the British line had collapsed. [9], The constant changing of operational targets once the offensive was underway gave the impression the German command had no coherent strategic goal. Although German troops southwest of Rheims succeeded in crossing the River Marne, the French launched a major offensive of their own on the west side of the salient on 18 July, threatening to cut off the Germans in the salient. The territorial gains were in the form of salients which greatly increased the length of the line that would have to be defended when Allied reinforcements gave the Allies the initiative. They had incurre… Il est manifeste qu'après Ypres, l'Allemagne veut utiliser les forces libérées par la paix avec la Russie pour un effort suprême plus au sud. Les autres offensives étaient subordonnées à Michael et ont été conçues pour détourner les forces alliées de l'offensive principale sur la Somme. Another larger force would outflank British forces, pus… Retour sur cette journée … Les Allemands s'étaient rendu compte que leur seule chance de gagner la guerre était d'anéantir les Alliés avant que les États-Unis ne puissent déployer suffisamment de troupes en Europe pour vaincre l'Allemagne. The Kaiserschlacht offensives had yielded large territorial gains for the Germans, in First World War terms. Stacks Request on-site access. Betrachtungen Zur Deutschen Frühjahrsoffensive 1918." There were four German offensives, codenamed Michael, Georgette, Gneisenau, and Blücher-Yorck. Bruchmüller's tactics were made possible by the vast numbers of heavy guns—with correspondingly plentiful amounts of ammunition for them—which Germany possessed by 1918. ... d'où l'ennemi a été chassé par la contre-offensive du général Cadorna. [36] American troops were for the first time also used as independent formations. The offensive would bear on the British Army which the German strategists considered to be exhausted after fighting four bloody and fruitless offensives in the course of 1917 at Arras, Messines, Passchendaele and Cambrai. Michael had drawn British forces to defend Amiens, leaving the rail route through Hazebrouck and the approaches to the Channel ports of Calais, Boulogne and Dunkirk vulnerable. Les Allemands s'étaient rendu compte que leur seule chance de gagner la guerre était d'anéantir les Alliés avant que les États-Unis ne puissent déployer suffisamment de troupes en Europe pour vaincre l'Allemagne. Sign Up . In November 1917, Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburgauthorised plans for this major offensive. ['Strategy of defeat. Dans un wagon-restaurant, près de la gare de Rethondes dans l'Oise aménagé en salle de réunion, l'amiral Wemyss, le maréchal Foch et le général Maxime Weygand mettront fin à quatre ans de guerre. Les alliés nomment Foch à la tête des armées franco-britanniques, le 26 mars. By the end of the first day, the Germans had made significant advances. By 1110, the British line had collapsed. Astore, William J. His lack of a coherent strategy to accompany the new tactics was expressed in a remark to one of his Army Group commanders, Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, in which he stated, "We chop a hole. Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean (18 July 1918 - German Spring Offensive: With the war against Russia ended, Germany was free to send troops from the Eastern to the Western Front. Strategically worthless ground, which had been devastated by years of conflict, was left lightly defended. In July 1918, the Allies regained their numerical advantage with the arrival of American troops. La première bataille entre chars de l'histoire eut lieue le 24 avril 1918, lors de la deuxième bataille de Villers-Bretonneux (bataille de la Lys, 24-27 avril 1918, offensive allemande … Le 9, Hutier a pris Ressons, le 10, Ribécourt, et les troupes françaises ont dû se replier derrière l'Oise et le Matz ; mais la gauche tient bon, et les Allemands n'ont pu prendre Courcelles. It was also a line of least resistance as the British and French armies were weak in the sector. Arras. ); then, destruction of their artillery; lastly an attack upon the enemy front-line infantry defences. Although Ludendorff was unsure whether the Americans would enter the war in strength, at a meeting of the Chiefs of Staff of the German armies on the Western Front on 11 November 1917, he decided to launch an offensive. The first advance, Operation Michael, began on March 21, 1918. En août 1918, les Alliés lancent une contre-offensive (offensive des Cent-Jours), en utilisant de nouvelles méthodes opérationnelles et en s'appuyant sur l'usage massif d'artillerie. Losses were approximately 35,000 Allied and 30,000 German. Lénine et les Bolcheviques ont toujours condamné la guerre de 1914 comme une guerre impérialiste où les intérêts des peuples sont totalement absents.